Neuroinflammation in the Central Nervous System: Exploring the Evolving Influence of Endocannabinoid System

Sumit S. Rathod, Yogeeta O. Agrawal, Kartik T. Nakhate, M. F.Nagoor Meeran, Shreesh Ojha, Sameer N. Goyal

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

Abstract

Neuroinflammation is a complex biological process that typically originates as a protective response in the brain. This inflammatory process is triggered by the release of pro-inflammatory substances like cytokines, prostaglandins, and reactive oxygen and nitrogen species from stimulated endothelial and glial cells, including those with pro-inflammatory functions, in the outer regions. While neuronal inflammation is common in various central nervous system disorders, the specific inflammatory pathways linked with different immune-mediated cell types and the various factors influencing the blood-brain barrier significantly contribute to disease-specific characteristics. The endocannabinoid system consists of cannabinoid receptors, endogenous cannabinoids, and enzymes responsible for synthesizing and metabolizing endocannabinoids. The primary cannabinoid receptor is CB1, predominantly found in specific brain regions such as the brainstem, cerebellum, hippocampus, and cortex. The presence of CB2 receptors in certain brain components, like cultured cerebellar granular cells, Purkinje fibers, and microglia, as well as in the areas like the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum is also evidenced by immunoblotting assays, radioligand binding, and autoradiography studies. Both CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptors exhibit noteworthy physiological responses and possess diverse neuromodulatory capabilities. This review primarily aims to outline the distribution of CB1 and CB2 receptors across different brain regions and explore their potential roles in regulating neuroinflammatory processes.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2642
JournalBiomedicines
Volume11
Issue number10
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2023
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • cannabinoid receptor 1
  • cannabinoid receptor 2
  • endocannabinoid system
  • microglia
  • neuroinflammation
  • proinflammatory cytokines

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)

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