Neuroinflammation, Oxidative Stress, Apoptosis, Microgliosis and Astrogliosis in the Cerebellum of Mice Chronically Exposed to Waterpipe Smoke

Naserddine Hamadi, Sumaya Beegam, Nur Elena Zaaba, Ozaz Elzaki, Mariam Abdulla Altamimi, Abderrahim Nemmar

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Waterpipe smoking (WPS) is prevalent in Asian and Middle Eastern countries and has recently gained worldwide popularity, especially among youth. WPS has potentially harmful chemicals and is associated with a wide range of adverse effects on different organs. However, little is known regarding the impact of WPS inhalation on the brain and especially on the cerebellum. Presently, we aimed at investigating inflammation, oxidative stress and apoptosis as well as microgliosis and astrogliosis in the cerebellum of BALB/C mice chronically (6 months) exposed to WPS compared with air-exposed mice (control). WPS inhalation augmented the concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor, interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-1β in cerebellar homogenates. Likewise, WPS increased oxidative stress markers including 8-isoprostane, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and superoxide dismutase. In addition, compared with the air-exposed group, WPS caused an increase in the oxidative DNA damage marker, 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine, in cerebellar homogenates. Similarly, in comparison with the air group, WPS inhalation elevated the cerebellar homogenate levels of cytochrome C, cleaved caspase-3 and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB). Immunofluorescence analysis of the cerebellum showed that WPS exposure significantly augmented the number of ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule 1 and glial fibrillary acidic protein-positive microglia and astroglia, respectively. Taken together, our data show that chronic exposure to WPS is associated with cerebellar inflammation, oxidative stress, apoptosis, microgliosis and astrogliosis. These actions were associated with a mechanism involving NF-κB activation.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1104
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2023


  • DNA damage
  • cerebellum
  • neuroinflammation
  • oxidative stress
  • waterpipe smoking

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • General Biochemistry,Genetics and Molecular Biology


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