Adverse pregnancy outcomes, such as low birth weight (LBW) and preterm birth (PTB), can have serious consequences for both the mother and infant. Early prediction of such outcomes is important for their prevention. Previous studies using traditional machine learning (ML) models for predicting PTB and LBW have encountered two important limitations: extreme class imbalance in medical datasets and the inability to account for complex relational structures between entities. To address these limitations, we propose a node embedding-based graph outlier detection algorithm to predict adverse pregnancy outcomes. We developed a knowledge graph using a well-curated representative dataset of the Emirati population and two node embedding algorithms. The graph autoencoder (GAE) was trained by applying a combination of original risk factors and node embedding features. Samples that were difficult to reconstruct at the output of GAE were identified as outliers considered representing PTB and LBW samples. Our experiments using LBW, PTB, and very PTB datasets demonstrated that incorporating node embedding considerably improved performance, achieving a 12% higher AUC-ROC compared to traditional GAE. Our study demonstrates the effectiveness of node embedding and graph outlier detection in improving the prediction performance of adverse pregnancy outcomes in well-curated population datasets.
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