Non-oestrogenic modalities to reverse urogenital aging

Simone Garzon, Vasso Apostolopoulos, Lily Stojanovska, Federico Ferrari, Begum Aydogan Mathyk, Antonio Simone Laganà

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

10 Citations (Scopus)


Urogenital aging is a common process affecting all women in the post-menopausal period of their life, and it is substantially due to oestrogen deprivation after ovarian function cessation. These changes can lead to a progressive, chronic, and complex association of symptoms identified as the genitourinary syndrome of menopause, which has a significant impact on quality of life. Genitourinary syndrome and urogenital aging do not resolve spontaneously and usually recur when treatment is stopped. Therefore, appropriate long-term management is of paramount importance, and local oestrogen is the most effective treatment to reverse urogenital aging and to improve symptoms of genitourinary syndrome as replacement therapy. In some women, topical oestrogen may be inconvenient, it may not achieve complete response, or it may be contra-indicated. Several non-hormonal therapies have been investigated, but few treatments have been reported as potentially able to reverse the urogenital aging process similarly to exogenous oestrogens. Laser seems the most promising, although further studies to define its safety and efficacy are mandatory. Vitamin D and E, and phytotherapy have returned conflicting results and require further confirmation. Lifestyle modifications, physiotherapy, and electrical stimulation represent inexpensive and applicable treatments that might slow urogenital aging. Among the hormonal non-oestrogenic therapies, the use of vaginal oxytocin and dehydroepiandrosterone have been found to be effective compared to placebo, as well as the use of oral ospemifene, which partially relieves vulvovaginal atrophy.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)140-147
Number of pages8
JournalPrzeglad Menopauzalny
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2021


  • Genitourinary syndrome
  • Non-hormonal therapy
  • Urogenital aging
  • Vulvovaginal atrophy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Obstetrics and Gynaecology


Dive into the research topics of 'Non-oestrogenic modalities to reverse urogenital aging'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this