In this study, we treated harmful Microcystis aeruginosa cyanobacteria using chitosan-modified nanobubbles. The chitosan-modified nanobubbles (255 ± 19 nm) presented a positive zeta potential (15.36 ± 1.17 mV) and generated significantly (p < 0.05) more hydroxyl radicals than the negatively charged nanobubbles (−20.68 ± 1.11 mV). Therefore, the interaction between the positively charged chitosan-modified nanobubbles and negatively charged M. aeruginosa (−34.81 ± 1.79 mV) was favored. The chitosan-modified nanobubble treatment (2.20 × 108 particles mL−1) inactivated 73.16% ± 2.23% of M. aeruginosa (2.00 × 106 cells mL−1) for 24 h without causing significant cell lysis (≤0.25%) and completely inhibited the acute toxicity of M. aeruginosa toward Daphnia magna. The inactivation was correlated (r2 = 0.97) with the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in M. aeruginosa. These findings indicated that the hydroxyl radicals generated by the chitosan-modified nanobubbles disrupted cell membrane integrity and enhanced oxidative stress (ROS formation), thereby inactivating M. aeruginosa. Moreover, the penetration of the chitosan-modified nanobubbles and cell alterations in M. aeruginosa were visually confirmed. Our results suggested that the chitosan-modified nanobubble treatment is an eco-friendly method for controlling harmful algae. However, further studies are required for expanding its practical applications.
- Hydroxyl radical
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis