Novel urinary alkylresorcinol metabolites as biomarkers of whole grain intake in free-living Swedish adults

Roksana Wierzbicka, Galia Zamaratskaia, Afaf Kamal-Eldin, Rikard Landberg

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    15 Citations (Scopus)


    Scope: Most studies on the role of whole grain for health rely on self-reported intake data, which are prone to measurement errors. There is a need for dietary biomarkers that can provide an objective measure of intake. Alkylresorcinols (AR) and their main metabolites 3,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHBA) and 3-(3,5-dihydroxyphenyl)-propanoic acid (DHPPA) have been proposed as biomarkers for whole grain (WG) wheat and rye intake. Methods and results: The medium-term reproducibility and relative validity of four putative urinary AR metabolites (3,5-dihydroxycinnamic acid (DHCA), 5-(3,5-dihydroxyphenyl) pentanoic acid (DHPPTA), 2-(3,5-dihydroxybenzamido)acetic acid (DHBA-glycine) and 3,5-dihydroxycinnamic acid amide (DHCA-amide)) as biomarkers for WG intake were investigated. Three-day weighed food records and 24-h urine samples from two occasions 2–3 months apart were obtained from 69 Swedish adults. WG intake was calculated and urinary AR metabolites were analyzed. The medium-term reproducibility determined for DHCA, DHPPTA, and DHBA-glycine varied from moderate-to-excellent (intra-class correlation coefficient = 0.63–0.85). Moreover, DHCA and DHPPTA excretion correlated well with self-reported total WG intake (r = 0.55, p < 0.001 and r = 0.42, p < 0.001, respectively). Conclusion: DHCA or DHPPTA excretion in 24-h urine might be a suitable medium- to long-term biomarker of WG wheat and rye intake. These findings need to be confirmed in populations with low and infrequent WG intake.

    Original languageEnglish
    Article number1700015
    JournalMolecular Nutrition and Food Research
    Issue number7
    Publication statusPublished - Jul 2017


    • Alkylresorcinols
    • Alkylresorcinols metabolites
    • Biomarkers
    • Reproducibility
    • Validity
    • Whole grain intake

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Biotechnology
    • Food Science


    Dive into the research topics of 'Novel urinary alkylresorcinol metabolites as biomarkers of whole grain intake in free-living Swedish adults'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

    Cite this