Oil palm waste based hybrid nanocomposites: Fire performance and structural analysis

N. Saba, M. Jawaid, Maher M. Alrashed, Othman Y. Alothman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

21 Citations (Scopus)


This study presents an investigation of the flame retardant (FR) tendency of modified and chemically treated nano oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) filler to improve the fire properties of highly combustible kenaf/epoxies. In this work hybrid nanocomposites were fabricated by adding nano OPEFB filler at 3% loading (by weight) through a hand lay-up technique. Fabricated hybrid nanocomposites were then compared to and analyzed with pure kenaf/epoxy, montmorillonite (MMT) and organically modified MMT (OMMT) hybrid nanocomposites. Flammability performance and functional group analysis of composites and hybrid nanocomposites are evaluated through limiting oxygen index (LOI), Underwriters Laboratories vertical burning test (UL-94V) burning test and Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy. The obtained results revealed that all kenaf/epoxy hybrid nanocomposites possess better (and satisfactory) flame retardancy properties in comparison to kenaf/epoxy composites, relatively little flame dripping or ignition. The superior flame retardancy of nano OPEFB hybrid nanocomposites are attributed to an intense synergistic flame retardation effect in the gaseous phase between tin and bromine elements that promote the free radical mechanisms to suppress the combustion. Flame tests show that MMT and OMMT hybrid nanocomposites display flame retardancy through physical barrier (char) formation at the composite surface in condensed phase. FTIR spectra displayed the presence of a specific functional group of added nano fillers in their respective hybrid nanocomposites.

Original languageEnglish
Article number100829
JournalJournal of Building Engineering
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2019
Externally publishedYes


  • Epoxy
  • Flame retardants
  • Kenaf fibers
  • Montmorillonite
  • Nanocomposites
  • Oil palm wastes
  • Organoclay

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Civil and Structural Engineering
  • Architecture
  • Building and Construction
  • Safety, Risk, Reliability and Quality
  • Mechanics of Materials


Dive into the research topics of 'Oil palm waste based hybrid nanocomposites: Fire performance and structural analysis'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this