On Performance Analysis of Cooperative Horizontal and Vertical Underwater VLC Systems with Best Relay Selection

Rachna Sharma, Yogesh N. Trivedi, Kamal K. Garg, Vimal Bhatia, Mohammed Abdel-Hafez

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


In this paper, we consider cooperative horizontal and vertical underwater visible light communication (UWVLC) systems employing best relay selection. In the vertical UWVLC system, the source is placed at the sea surface and the destination is placed at a depth of 60 m. The link between the source and the destination is modeled as concatenated layers considering inhomogeneous environmental conditions. The underwater parameters change with depth, causing a variable refractive index, which leads to non-uniform optical turbulence. The horizontal communication link is analyzed for two different levels of turbulence at 10 m and 50 m depths. Turbulence is modeled using a log-normal distribution, whose statistical parameters depend on the temperature and salinity at different depths. We have also taken into account the path losses caused by absorption and scattering, and carried out a comprehensive performance comparison between the horizontal and the vertical UWVLC systems. Insights show that compared to horizontal links, vertical links need an extra relay in order to achieve the same level of matching performance. Moreover, it is shown that the horizontal system’s outage performance improves with depth.

Original languageEnglish
Article number429
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2023


  • ergodic capacity
  • log-normal distribution
  • outage probability
  • underwater visible light communication (UWVLC)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Instrumentation
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging


Dive into the research topics of 'On Performance Analysis of Cooperative Horizontal and Vertical Underwater VLC Systems with Best Relay Selection'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this