Orexins play a role in many biological functions include sleep, feeding, and energy balance. They also regulate circadian rhythms and the way that we feel pain. Orexins have been identified in a variety of tissues including the cerebrospinal fluid, blood, hypothalamus, spinal cord, sensory ganglion, enteric nervous system, pituitary, adrenal, salivary and lacrimal glands, testis, vestibular gland, and skin. Orexins play a role in a variety of biological functions including arousal, sleeping, food and fluid intake, pain, memory, perception of odor, and sexual activity. Orexins have also been implicated in the regulation of glucose metabolism. The expression of orexin is induced by hypoglycemia, low food, pregnancy, and hemodialysis. In contrast, factors that inhibit the expression of orexins include obstructive sleep apnea, aging, depression, obesity, traumatic brain injury, and inflammatory molecules such as liposaccharide. In conclusion, orexins are widely distributed and involved in a large variety of biological activities.