Orientation of Healthcare Educators Towards Using an Effective Medical Simulation-Based Learning: A Q-Methodology Study

Feras Zeyad Alotaibi, Sajida Agha, Emad Masuadi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Purpose: This study explores the healthcare educators’ orientations about medical simulation in clinical skills training —its benefits, needs, challenges, and implications for proper implementation and integration into curricula. Methods: The study used a Q-sort technique, allowing quantitative and qualitative representation of the participants’ orientations and was conducted at King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A total of 22 healthcare educators from different roles were included. Participants pre-sorted into three categories and then ranked statements related to medical simulation, by level of agreement, and they answered open-ended and demographic questions. Data was uploaded to Ken-Q Analysis application to conduct Q-factor analysis. Results: A total of 22 healthcare educators participated in the study. Q-factor analysis was performed with principal component analysis and varimax rotation, identifying three factors. Most educators shared a similar orientation regarding the benefits of using simulation-based learning. Most participants considered medical simulation a simple, effortless, and beneficial method of learning. However, challenges in scheduling sessions and obtaining the necessary resources, such as human resources and funds, and lack of training had a negative impact on some participants’ motivation to use medical simulation. Conclusion: Healthcare educators shed light on the influence of multiple factors on using medical simulation. The possibility for students to learn practical and clinical skills was a leading factor. Financial resources, funds, and faculty training were identified as challenges and needs. It is important for institutions and leaders to be aware of the variations in faculty perceptions and to provide resources and training to improve the current use of medical simulation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)507-519
Number of pages13
JournalAdvances in Medical Education and Practice
Publication statusPublished - 2022
Externally publishedYes


  • by-person factor analysis
  • educators’ perception
  • medical education
  • Q-sort study
  • simulation-based training

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education


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