Origin of Amphibole-Biotite-Fluorite-Rich Enclaves from Gabal El-Ineigi Fluorite-Bearing Granite, Central Eastern Desert of Egypt: Insights into Fluoride–Calcium and Silicate Liquid Immiscibility

Hanaa A. El-Dokouny, Nasser M. Mahdy, Hany H. El Hadek, Mabrouk Sami, Rainer Abart, Mohamed S. Ahmed, Tehseen Zafar, Ioan V. Sanislav

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Gabal El-Ineigi fluorite-bearing rare-metal granite with A-type affinity, located in the Central Eastern Desert of Egypt, is distinguished by its abundance of large fluorite-quartz veins and mafic enclaves. Plagioclase (labradorite to oligoclase), Mg-rich biotite, and Mg-rich hornblende are the main components of mafic enclaves, with significant amounts of fluorite as essential phases, and titanite and Fe-Ti oxides (Nb-free rutile and ilmenite-rutile solid solution) as the main accessories. These enclaves are monzodioritic in composition, Si-poor, and highly enriched in Ca, Fe, Mg, and F compared to the host alkali feldspar F-poor Si-rich granites. Given the conflicting evidence for a restitic, xenolithic, magma mixing/mingling, cumulate, or bimodal origin for these enclaves, we propose that the mafic enclaves and felsic host granites are two conjugate liquids, with contrasting compositions, of a single parental melt. This is inferred by the normalized REE patterns that are similar. As a result, liquid immiscibility is proposed as a probable explanation for this mafic–felsic rock association. These enclaves can be interpreted as transient melt phases between pure silicate and calcium-fluoride melts that are preserved from the early stages of separation before evolving into a pure fluoride (Ca-F) melt during magma evolution. Due to element partitioning related to melt unmixing, the enclaves are preferentially enriched in Ca, F, Li, Y, and REE and depleted in HFSE (such as Zr, U, Th, Ta, Nb, Hf, and Ga) in comparison to the host granites. Furthermore, mafic enclaves exhibit W-type tetrad effects, while host granites exhibit M-type tetrad effects, implying that the REE partitioning, caused by liquid immiscibility, is complementary.

Original languageEnglish
Article number670
JournalMinerals
Volume13
Issue number5
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - May 2023
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • fluoride melt
  • liquid immiscibility
  • mafic enclave
  • silicate melt
  • tetrad effect

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Geotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology
  • Geology

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