Oxidative Stress and Natural Antioxidants: Back and Forth in the Neurological Mechanisms of Alzheimer’s Disease

Shalini Mani, Rajni Dubey, I. Chun Lai, M. Arockia Babu, Sakshi Tyagi, Geeta Swargiary, Deepansh Mody, Manisha Singh, Shriya Agarwal, Danish Iqbal, Sanjay Kumar, Munerah Hamed, Punya Sachdeva, Abdulmajeed G. Almutary, Hind Muteb Albadrani, Shreesh Ojha, Sandeep Kumar Singh, Niraj Kumar Jha

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is characterized by the progressive degeneration of neuronal cells. With the increase in aged population, there is a prevalence of irreversible neurodegenerative changes, causing a significant mental, social, and economic burden globally. The factors contributing to AD are multidimensional, highly complex, and not completely understood. However, it is widely known that aging, neuroinflammation, and excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), along with other free radicals, substantially contribute to oxidative stress and cell death, which are inextricably linked. While oxidative stress is undeniably important in AD, limiting free radicals and ROS levels is an intriguing and potential strategy for deferring the process of neurodegeneration and alleviating associated symptoms. Therapeutic compounds from natural sources have recently become increasingly accepted and have been effectively studied for AD treatment. These phytocompounds are widely available and a multitude of holistic therapeutic efficiencies for treating AD owing to their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and biological activities. Some of these compounds also function by stimulating cholinergic neurotransmission, facilitating the suppression of beta-site amyloid precursor protein-cleaving enzyme 1, α-synuclein, and monoamine oxidase proteins, and deterring the occurrence of AD. Additionally, various phenolic, flavonoid, and terpenoid phytocompounds have been extensively described as potential palliative agents for AD progression. Preclinical studies have shown their involvement in modulating the cellular redox balance and minimizing ROS formation, displaying them as antioxidant agents with neuroprotective abilities. This review emphasizes the mechanistic role of natural products in the treatment of AD and discusses the various pathological hypotheses proposed for AD.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)877-912
Number of pages36
JournalJournal of Alzheimer's Disease
Volume96
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Nov 21 2023

Keywords

  • Alzheimer’s disease
  • antioxidants
  • neuroprotection
  • oxidative stress
  • therapeutics
  • vitamins

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Neuroscience
  • Clinical Psychology
  • Geriatrics and Gerontology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health

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