PBAT/PBS Blends Membranes Filled with Nanocrystalline Cellulose for Heavy Metal Ion Separation

Lau Kia Kian, Mohammad Jawaid, Mohamed H. Mahmoud, Naheed Saba, Hassan Fouad, Othman Y. Alothman, Zoheb Karim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


The aim of this study was to cognise the impact of nanocrystalline cellulose (NCCs) during fabrication of biodegradable poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (PBAT)/ poly(butylene succinate) (PBS) blend membranes. Biobased NCCs with high crystalline structure were incorporated ranging from 0 to 3 wt%. The 2 wt% NCC-filled membrane displayed a distinct and well-assimilated polymeric membrane network. In addition, increasing the NCCs loadings have positive impact on membrane porosity and average pour-size. The thermal resistance of the clean membrane was greatly increased after 1 wt% NCC loading but decreased dramatically with 2 and 3 wt% NCC loadings. Additionally, the membrane containing 3wt% NCCs displayed the greatest mechanical properties for Young’s modulus (3.12 GPa), elongation at break (8.5%), and tensile strength (28.3 MPa). The continuous operation test at 0.1 MPa demonstrated that a 3 wt% NCC loaded membrane had maximum removal effectiveness for metal ions of chromium and manganese i.e. 96% and 93%, respectively. Therefore, a fully biodegradable NCCs-filled PBAT/PBS composite membranes have significant future potential for use in the treatment of wastewater streams containing heavy metal ions.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)5263-5273
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Polymers and the Environment
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2022
Externally publishedYes


  • Composite membranes
  • Heavy metal ions
  • Nanocrystalline cellulose
  • Poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate)
  • Poly(butylene succinate)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Engineering
  • Polymers and Plastics
  • Materials Chemistry


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