Perovskite-Surface-Confined Grain Growth for High-Performance Perovskite Solar Cells

Sajid Sajid, Salem Alzahmi, Imen Ben Salem, Ihab M. Obaidat

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)


The conventional post-annealing (CPA) process is frequently employed and regarded a crucial step for high-quality perovskite thin-films. However, most researchers end up with unwanted characteristics because controlling the evaporation rate of perovskite precursor solvents during heat treatment is difficult. Most perovskite thin-films result in rough surfaces with pinholes and small grains with multiple boundaries, if the evaporation of precursor solvents is not controlled in a timely manner, which negatively affects the performance of perovskite solar cells (PSCs). Here, we present a surface-confined post-annealing (SCPA) approach for controlling the evaporation of perovskite precursor solvents and promoting crystallinity, homogeneity, and surface morphology of the resulting perovskites. The SCPA method not only modulates the evaporation of residual solvents, resulting in pinhole-free thin-films with large grains and fewer grain boundaries, but it also reduces recombination sites and facilitates the transport of charges in the resulting perovskite thin-films. When the method is changed from CPA to SCPA, the power conversion efficiency of PSC improves from 18.94% to 21.59%. Furthermore, as compared to their CPA-based counterparts, SCPA-based PSCs have less hysteresis and increased long-term stability. The SCPA is a potentially universal method for improving the performance and stability of PSCs by modulating the quality of perovskite thin-films.

Original languageEnglish
Article number3352
Issue number19
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2022


  • crystallinity
  • morphology
  • perovskite solar cell
  • post annealing
  • thin-film

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Chemical Engineering
  • General Materials Science


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