Physicochemical properties of geopolymer composites with DFT calculations of in-situ reduction of graphene oxide

Amun Amri, Ahmad Ainun Najib, Monita Olivia, Mohammednoor Altarawneh, Aman Syam, M. Mahbubur Rahman, Sulistyo Saputro, Johny Wahyuadi, Zhong Tao Jiang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


In this work, the physicochemical properties of palm oil fuel ash (POFA) based geopolymers with the addition of graphene oxide (GO) were investigated. Geopolymer composites were prepared by mixing the treated POFA, sand, NaOH, Na2SiO3, and GO. The mixtures were then cast in mortar molds to form the geopolymer composites, with different GO proportions and curing temperatures applied to the composites. Compressive strength, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses, as well as density functional theory (DFT) calculations, have been performed. The compressive test results showed that the compressive strength increased proportionally with the increase of GO content and decreased when there was an excess of GO. The excessive GO and the limited amount of NaOH activator solution inhibited the formation of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) via an in-situ reduction mechanism. The FTIR and SEM analyses revealed that the excess GO tended to promote the formation of epoxy groups on the GO, which eventually confined the formation of dense agglomeration and led to a decrease in compressive strength. The DFT calculations confirmed the significance of the epoxy group stretching. Overall, the ratio of NaOH to GO is a crucial factor in determining the mechanical properties of geopolymers-GO composites.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)13440-13445
Number of pages6
JournalCeramics International
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - May 15 2021


  • DFT calculations
  • Geopolymer
  • Graphene oxide
  • In-situ reduction
  • Physicochemical properties

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Ceramics and Composites
  • Process Chemistry and Technology
  • Surfaces, Coatings and Films
  • Materials Chemistry


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