Preparation and characterization of lignin/nano graphene oxide/styrene butadiene rubber composite for automobile tyre application

Anish Khan, Lau Kia Kian, Mohammad Jawaid, Aftab Aslam Parwaz Khan, Hadi M. Marwani, Maha Moteb Alotaibi, Abdullah M. Asiri

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

12 Citations (Scopus)


Styrene butadiene rubber (SBR), is a synthetic polymer and the most abundantly used in the tire industry, which have good collaborative properties with additives and fillers. In present work, we aim to synthesize SBR composite having the properties of graphene oxide filler and made it to be biodegradable. In composite preparation, we fabricated styrene-butadiene rubber/graphene oxide/lignin composites by adding biodegradable biomolecule of lignin fillers at varying 1–3 wt% quantities amount. Those prepared SBR composites were characterized using advanced analysis techniques, and also their biodegradability was. From microscopy examination results, the morphology of pure SBR composite had been improved after the addition of graphene oxide, while the 1 wt% lignin filled SBR sample revealed well-integrated morphology with crest-and-trough-like feature, showcasing the lignin fibrils could strengthen the molecular interaction between graphene oxide nano sheet and SBR rubber. For 2 wt% lignin filled SBR sample, it exhibited large protuberants due to the aggregation effect of lignin fibrils. However, bulky and bundle structure of protuberant was more significantly formed in 3 wt% lignin filled SBR, as a result of poor interface between lignin and SBR rubber. The porosity had also been improved for 1 wt% lignin filled SBR sample, imparting it with great surface area to act as tire in automobile application. The physico-chemical analysis also detected the trace of graphene oxide and lignin functional groups in the SBR composite. In addition, the thermal analysis revealed those lignin-filled composites had stable heat tolerance behavior, which suitably used in extreme weather condition. Moreover, the 1 wt% lignin filled SBR sample exhibited good characteristics in both mechanical and biodegradable properties. Thus, the composite of 1 wt% lignin filled SBR could be regarded as a promising candidate for green tire application in the future.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)363-370
Number of pages8
JournalInternational Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Publication statusPublished - May 1 2022
Externally publishedYes


  • Automobile
  • Biodegradble
  • Composite
  • Fibril
  • Lignin
  • SBR

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Structural Biology
  • Biochemistry
  • Molecular Biology


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