Preschool and primary school teachers' attitudes towards inclusive education in Egypt: The role of experience and selfefficacy

Mahmoud Mohamed Emam, Ahmed Hassan Hemdan Mohamed

Research output: Contribution to journalConference articlepeer-review

41 Citations (Scopus)


Inclusive Education (IE) in Egypt has recently received a momentum by the reauthorization of the Child Act in 2008 and the issuing of IE Mandates in 2009, and 2011. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between teacher self-efficacy and teacher attitudes toward the inclusive classroom. Research studies have demonstrated that teachers' sense of self-efficacy directly impacts student performance. We investigated the association between teachers' perception of self-efficacy and their attitudes towards the inclusion of pupils with special educational needs (SEN) at preschool and primary settings. In addition, we explored whether experience had an effect on teachers' attitudes and sense of self-efficacy. The Opinions Relevant to Integration of Students with Disabilities (ORI) and Teacher Self-Efficacy Scale (TES) were administered to 95 primary school teachers and 71 preschool teachers. Results showed that scores on the ORI could predict scores on the TES for both preschool and primary school teachers. Teachers with more experience had more positive attitudes than teachers with less experience whereas experience had no effect on teachers' sense of self efficacy in teaching pupils with SEN. No differences were found between preschool and primary school teachers' attitudes, whereas primary school teachers showed a higher sense of self-efficacy than did preschool teachers regarding the management and teaching of pupils with SEN. The results of the study are discussed in relation to international literature on IE, reflecting on the implications of the study in relation to the policies of IE in Egypt.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)976-985
Number of pages10
JournalProcedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences
Publication statusPublished - 2011
Externally publishedYes
Event2nd International Conference on Education and Educational Psychology, ICEEPSY 2011 - Istanbul, Turkey
Duration: Oct 19 2011Oct 22 2011


  • Attitudes
  • Experience
  • Inclusive education
  • Self-efficacy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Social Sciences
  • General Psychology


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