Prevalence of Celiac Disease in Patients With Turner Syndrome: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Ghada S.M. Al-Bluwi, Asma H. AlNababteh, Linda Östlundh, Saif Al-Shamsi, Rami H. Al-Rifai

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)


Introduction: Celiac disease (CD) is a multifactorial autoimmune disorder, and studies have reported that patients with Turner syndrome (TS) are at risk for CD. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to quantify the weighted prevalence of CD among patients with TS and determine the weighted strength of association between TS and CD. Methods: Studies published between January 1991 and December 2019 were retrieved from four electronic databases: PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and Embase. Eligible studies were identified and relevant data were extracted by two independent reviewers following specific eligibility criteria and a data extraction plan. Using the random-effects model, the pooled, overall and subgroup CD prevalence rates were determined, and sources of heterogeneity were investigated using meta-regression. Results: Among a total of 1,116 screened citations, 36 eligible studies were included in the quantitative synthesis. Nearly two-thirds of the studies (61.1%) were from European countries. Of the 6,291 patients with TS who were tested for CD, 241 were diagnosed with CD, with a crude CD prevalence of 3.8%. The highest and lowest CD prevalence rates of 20.0 and 0.0% were reported in Sweden and Germany, respectively. The estimated overall weighted CD prevalence was 4.5% (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.3–5.9, I2, 67.4%). The weighted serology-based CD prevalence in patients with TS (3.4%, 95% CI, 1.0–6.6) was similar to the weighted biopsy-based CD prevalence (4.8%; 95% CI, 3.4–6.5). The strength of association between TS and CD was estimated in only four studies (odds ratio 18.1, 95% CI, 1.82–180; odds ratio 4.34, 95% CI, 1.48–12.75; rate ratio 14, 95% CI, 1.48–12.75; rate ratio 42.5, 95% CI, 12.4–144.8). Given the lack of uniformity in the type of reported measures of association and study design, producing a weighted effect measure to evaluate the strength of association between TS and CD was unfeasible. Conclusion: Nearly 1 in every 22 patients with TS had CD. Regular screening for CD in patients with TS might facilitate early diagnosis and therapeutic management to prevent adverse effects of CD such as being underweight and osteoporosis.

Original languageEnglish
Article number674896
JournalFrontiers in Medicine
Publication statusPublished - Jun 17 2021


  • Turner syndrome
  • celiac disease
  • meta-analysis
  • systematic review
  • weighted prevalence

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Medicine


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