Probiotic-Based Bacteriocin: Immunity Supplementation Against Viruses. An Updated Review

Muhammad Umair, Saqib Jabbar, Lu Zhaoxin, Zhang Jianhao, Muhammad Abid, Kashif Ur R. Khan, Sameh A. Korma, Mashail A. Alghamdi, Mohamed T. El-Saadony, Mohamed E. Abd El-Hack, Ilaria Cacciotti, Synan F. AbuQamar, Khaled A. El-Tarabily, Liqing Zhao

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

11 Citations (Scopus)


Viral infections are a major cause of severe, fatal diseases worldwide. Recently, these infections have increased due to demanding contextual circumstances, such as environmental changes, increased migration of people and product distribution, rapid demographic changes, and outbreaks of novel viruses, including the COVID-19 outbreak. Internal variables that influence viral immunity have received attention along with these external causes to avert such novel viral outbreaks. The gastrointestinal microbiome (GIM), particularly the present probiotics, plays a vital role in the host immune system by mediating host protective immunity and acting as an immune regulator. Bacteriocins possess numerous health benefits and exhibit antagonistic activity against enteric pathogens and immunobiotics, thereby inhibiting viral infections. Moreover, disrupting the homeostasis of the GIM/host immune system negatively affects viral immunity. The interactions between bacteriocins and infectious viruses, particularly in COVID-19, through improved host immunity and physiology are complex and have not yet been studied, although several studies have proven that bacteriocins influence the outcomes of viral infections. However, the complex transmission to the affected sites and siRNA defense against nuclease digestion lead to challenging clinical trials. Additionally, bacteriocins are well known for their biofunctional properties and underlying mechanisms in the treatment of bacterial and fungal infections. However, few studies have shown the role of probiotics-derived bacteriocin against viral infections. Thus, based on the results of the previous studies, this review lays out a road map for future studies on bacteriocins for treating viral infections.

Original languageEnglish
Article number876058
JournalFrontiers in Microbiology
Publication statusPublished - Jul 26 2022


  • antiviral immunity
  • bacteriocin
  • immune interaction
  • immunomodulatory
  • probiotics
  • viral infection

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Microbiology
  • Microbiology (medical)


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