Promotional effects of Nb2O5 on ceria doped Ni catalysts for selective hydrogenation of 1,3-butadiene to butenes: Combined experimental and DFT approach

Toyin Shittu, Aasif A. Dabbawala, Labeeb Ali, Abbas Khaleel, Muhammad Z.Iqbal, Kyriaki Polychronopoulou, Mohammednoor Altarawneh

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

Developing low cost, active and selective catalysts that would replace the more deployed noble metals is desirable for hydrogenation of 1,3-butadiene. Herein, we prepared Ni catalysts supported on niobium-cerium oxides and characterization was carried out with TGA, XRD, H2-TPR, H2-TPD, HR-TEM, XPS, FTIR, N2 adsorption–desorption, and EDS mapping. Density functional theory (DFT) computes the reaction energies controlling the 1,3-butadiene hydrogenation. H2-TPR revealed that the inclusion of niobium oxide in the catalysts confer stronger metal support interaction that promotes the surface and bulk reduction of cerium oxide and leads to the improvement in the formation of surface Ce3+ as confirmed from the XPS analysis. 1,3-butadiene conversion was tested between 100 °C-350 °C and the catalysts exhibit high conversion at lower Ni loading. We found that the niobium inclusion directed the selectivity towards near complete butene formation even at higher temperature. The onset of decline in activity was observed at temperatures above 250 °C with the simultaneous formation of propene and propane and the disappearance of butane. Guided by the reaction results and the temperature programmed oxidation analysis (TPO), we proposed the reaction mechanism leading to the deactivation, and this entails butane decomposition to propene and surface carbene, while propane is formed from propene, the surface carbene occasioned in the formation of harmful carbon as evident from TPO results. Carbonaceous species formed on the catalysts were minimized on the niobium containing catalysts.

Original languageEnglish
Article number151082
JournalChemical Engineering Journal
Volume488
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - May 15 2024

Keywords

  • BD hydrogenation
  • Butene selectivity
  • CeO
  • Density functional theory
  • Nickel-niobium catalysts

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Chemistry
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • General Chemical Engineering
  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering

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