Psychometric Properties of Anxiety Towards Mathematics Scale using Samples from Four Continents

Jacob Owusu Sarfo, Arturo García-Santillán, Edward Wilson Ansah, Henry Adusei, Josephine Cudjoe Sarfo, Rafael Valdece Sousa Bastos, Philip Soyiri Donyeh, Violetta S. Molchanova, Marina Drushlyak, Olena Semenikhina, Somayeh Zand, Violeta Enea, Sadia Malik, Farzana Ashraf, Najma Iqbal Malik, Hattaphan Wongcharee, Felix O. Egara, Arun Tipandjan, Uzma Azam, Mohammed Salah HassanMai Helmy, Zahir Vally, Reza Najafi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)


This study aimed to examine the factor structure and psychometric properties of the Anxiety Towards Mathematics Scale across four continents. We adopted and translated the original Spanish version of the 24-item Anxiety Towards Mathematics Scale (ATMS-24; Muñoz, Mato-Vazquez, 2007) to collect 4,338 responses from Egypt, Ghana, India, Iran, Malaysia, Mexico, Nigeria, Pakistan, Romania, Thailand, Ukraine, and United Arab Emirates. Also, we conducted an Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) on the ATMS-24 to examine whether the data fit well across cultures. Furthermore, we modified the full-length ATMS-24 to a short form (11-items: ATMS-11) using the Gradual Response Model (GRM) of Item Response Theory (IRT) and further conducted an analysis of measurement invariance. The EFA conducted indicated that the ATMS-24 fit the data well across cultures. The new ATMS-11 version has adequate configural, metric, and scalar invariance in seven countries and the overall sample. The ATMS-11 offers a valid, reliable, and parsimonious means to assess mathematics Anxiety (MA) among students from varied cultures.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)504-514
Number of pages11
JournalEuropean Journal of Contemporary Education
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2022


  • Anxiety towards mathematics scale
  • Cultures
  • Mathematics anxiety
  • Psychometric properties

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education


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