TY - JOUR

T1 - Rayleigh-Benard convection of water conveying copper nanoparticles of larger radius and inter-particle spacing at increasing ratio of momentum to thermal diffusivities

AU - Wang, Fuzhang

AU - M. Al-Mdallal, Qasem

AU - Famakinwa, O. A.

AU - Animasaun, I. L.

AU - Vaidya, Hanumesh

N1 - Funding Information:
The authors would like to acknowledge and express their gratitude to the United Arab Emirates University, Al Ain, UAE for providing financial support with Grant No. 12S086. This work was partially supported by the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangxi Province (No. 20224BAB201018), the Natural Science Foundation of Xuzhou (No. KC22056) and Research Project of Science and Technology Plan of Jiangxi Provincial Department of Education (No. GJJ2203204 & GJJ2203201).
Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 Faculty of Engineering, Alexandria University

PY - 2023/5/15

Y1 - 2023/5/15

N2 - As in the case of enhancing the performance of high-temperature superconductors, the dynamics of colloidal mixes of water and copper-based nanoparticles exposed to an inclined magnetic field owing to free convection is a recognized issue. However, nothing is known about the dynamics mentioned above when the radius and inter-particle spacing of copper nanoparticles grow in the presence of Joule dissipation, mass flux owing to a temperature gradient, internal heating, and heat flux due to concentration gradient. When the ratio of momentum to thermal diffusivities is incorporated into the momentum equation using appropriate models, the governing equation (i.e. Partial Differential Equations) that models the transport mentioned above was scaled, solved numerically, and simulated with a focus on the nanoparticle radius and the spacing between copper nanoparticles. The resultant non-linear coupled Ordinary Differential Equation was solved using the MATLAB integrated (i.e. bvp4c software package) and the shooting approach (i.e. fourth-order Runge–Kutta integration strategy shrk4). Just because of the resulting improvement in the temperature distribution, increasing the ratio of momentum to thermal diffusivities leads to a more pronounced local skin friction within the layers adjacent to the wall and heat transfer. Because buoyancy forces are exclusively associated with the growth of concentration difference, they cause the distance covered by the transport phenomenon in terms of the spatial domain to decrease. Higher ratios of momentum to thermal diffusivities cause the full-fledged sheer stress profile, which is proportional to friction across fluid layers, to rise.

AB - As in the case of enhancing the performance of high-temperature superconductors, the dynamics of colloidal mixes of water and copper-based nanoparticles exposed to an inclined magnetic field owing to free convection is a recognized issue. However, nothing is known about the dynamics mentioned above when the radius and inter-particle spacing of copper nanoparticles grow in the presence of Joule dissipation, mass flux owing to a temperature gradient, internal heating, and heat flux due to concentration gradient. When the ratio of momentum to thermal diffusivities is incorporated into the momentum equation using appropriate models, the governing equation (i.e. Partial Differential Equations) that models the transport mentioned above was scaled, solved numerically, and simulated with a focus on the nanoparticle radius and the spacing between copper nanoparticles. The resultant non-linear coupled Ordinary Differential Equation was solved using the MATLAB integrated (i.e. bvp4c software package) and the shooting approach (i.e. fourth-order Runge–Kutta integration strategy shrk4). Just because of the resulting improvement in the temperature distribution, increasing the ratio of momentum to thermal diffusivities leads to a more pronounced local skin friction within the layers adjacent to the wall and heat transfer. Because buoyancy forces are exclusively associated with the growth of concentration difference, they cause the distance covered by the transport phenomenon in terms of the spatial domain to decrease. Higher ratios of momentum to thermal diffusivities cause the full-fledged sheer stress profile, which is proportional to friction across fluid layers, to rise.

KW - Buoyancy force

KW - Copper Nanoparticles

KW - Heat source

KW - Prandtl number

KW - Schmidt number

KW - Water-based nanofluid

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U2 - 10.1016/j.aej.2023.03.028

DO - 10.1016/j.aej.2023.03.028

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:85151278048

SN - 1110-0168

VL - 71

SP - 521

EP - 533

JO - Alexandria Engineering Journal

JF - Alexandria Engineering Journal

ER -