Real-Time Implementation and Control of Multi-Source Electric Vehicle Traction Motor under Various Drive Conditions

Achikkulath Prasanthi, Hussain Shareef, Rachid Errouissi, Madathodika Asna, Addy Wahyudie

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The hybridization of multiple energy sources is crucial for electric vehicles to deliver the same performance as modern fossil fuel-based automobiles. This paper presents a torque and speed control strategy for an electric vehicle DC traction motor by regulating the power flow from two energy sources, namely battery and supercapacitor systems, to resist unpredictable disturbances. A control system with three control loops is applied to regulate the speed of the traction motor. The outer speed control loop is a nonlinear state feedback controller with a disturbance observer, which is capable of handling non-linear systems with unpredictable disturbances. The inner voltage and current control loop are precisely tuned PI controllers. Using an adaptive energy management method that varies depending on the state of charge of the source, the total reference current needed to support the load demand is split between two sources. A laboratory prototype system model is generated, and the performance is analyzed under motoring and regenerative braking conditions. For monitoring and controlling the system, the dSPACE DS1202 real-time simulator is employed. The performance of the proposed control system is evaluated and it is found that the settling time to settle within a tolerance band of 1% is 0.75 s.

Original languageEnglish
Article number6447
Issue number18
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2023


  • disturbance observer
  • hardware prototype
  • non-linear state feedback controller
  • real time control
  • speed control
  • torque control

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Fuel Technology
  • Engineering (miscellaneous)
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Energy (miscellaneous)
  • Control and Optimization
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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