Regulatory triggers of CRISPR-edited crops

Aftab Ahmad, Kamel A. Abd-Elsalam, Muhammad Ali, Humara Naz Majeed, Aiman Arif, Ahmad Munir, Zulqurnain Khan, Nayla Munawar

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


CRISPR/Cas has emerged as powerful tool for genome editing and has resulted in significant genetic improvements of plants in an efficient and precise manner. CRISPR/Cas system has potential to rewrite the genetic code in agricultural crops, which is important for food production in underdeveloped countries. CRISPR-Cas9 has already enabled remarkable genetic modifications in plants to improve metabolic pathways, herbicide resistance, pathogen tolerance, biotic and abiotic stresses, grain and yield quality. CRISPR-edited crop policies and regulations are being debated around the world. Under existing regulatory laws, the United States has deregulated CRISPR-edited crops (SDN1), whereas the European Union (EU) regulates all types of CRISPR-edited crops as genetically modified (GM) organism (GMO). CRISPR-edited crops have great potential in terms of global agriculture and food security. Although CRISPR crops are providing numerous advantages, many people are worried about the possible risks related to these crops. The major risk associated with CRISPR crops is off-target effects. The gene transferred to nontargeted plants may cause serious health and environmental issues. Recent publications have revealed CRISPR-Cas issues such as cancer risks, and genome rearrangements, deletion, and p53 response dysfunction. Future of CRISPR crops depends upon how these crops are deregulated in the world. In this chapter, we discuss product and process-based regulation of crops. Different countries follow different regulatory framework. The United States follows product-based regulation and has deregulated all the crops that come under SDN1 and SDN2; the EU follows process-based regulation and SDN1, SDN2, SDN3 outcomes have been classified as GMOs. Furthermore, we summarize the risk associated with CRISPR crops. We also highlighted different methods to produce transgene-free crops. In the last section, we summarize how genome-edited crops are regulated in different countries globally.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationGlobal Regulatory Outlook for CRISPRized Plants
Number of pages22
ISBN (Electronic)9780443184444
ISBN (Print)9780443184451
Publication statusPublished - Jan 1 2023


  • CRISPR crops
  • novel trait-based triggers
  • process-based triggers
  • product-based triggers
  • regulatory triggers
  • transgene-free crops

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Engineering
  • General Agricultural and Biological Sciences


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