Risk factors associated with quadbike crashes: a systematic review

Preetha Menon, Marwan El-Deyarbi, Moien Ab Khan, Rami H. Al-Rifai, Michal Grivna, Linda Östlundh, Mohamed EI-Sadig

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


Background: Quadbikes or all-terrain vehicles are known for their propensity for crashes resulting in injury, disability, and death. The control of these needless losses resulting from quadbike crashes has become an essential contributor to sustainable development goals. Understanding the risk factors for such injuries is essential for developing preventive policies and strategies. The aim of this review was to identify the risk factors associated with quadbike crashes at multiple levels through a systematic review of a wide range of study designs. Methods: The study incorporated a mixed-method systematic review approach and followed the PRISMA 2020 guidelines for reporting systematic reviews, including a peer reviewed protocol. This systematic review included observational studies investigating the risk factors associated with quadbike crashes, injuries, or deaths. Seven electronic databases were searched from inception to October 2021. Studies were screened and extracted by three researchers. Quality appraisal was conducted using the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool (MMAT). Due to extensive heterogeneity, meta-analysis was not conducted. All the risk factors have been presented in a narrative synthesis for discussion following the guidelines for Synthesis without Meta-analysis (SWiM). Results: Thirty-nine studies combining an aggregate of 65,170 participants were included in this systematic review. The results indicate that modifiable risk factors, such as the increasing age of driving initiation, reducing substance use, and the use of organized riding parks, could reduce quadbike injuries. Riding practices such as avoiding passengers, avoiding nighttime riding, and using helmets could significantly reduce crashes and injuries among riders. Vehicle modifications such as increasing the wheelbase and limiting engine displacement could also help reduce crash incidence. Traditional interventional methods, such as legislation and training, had a weak influence on reducing quadbike injuries. Conclusion: Multiple risk factors are associated with quadbike injuries, with most of them modifiable. Strengthening policies and awareness to minimize risk factors would help in reducing accidents associated with quadbikes.

Original languageEnglish
Article number27
JournalWorld Journal of Emergency Surgery
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2022


  • All-terrain vehicle
  • Haddon matrix
  • Injury prevention
  • Quadbike
  • Risk
  • Safety
  • Sustainable development goals

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Emergency Medicine


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