Risk of hospitalization and vaccine effectiveness among COVID-19 patients in the UAE during the Delta and Omicron outbreaks

Mohammed Albreiki, Mira Mousa, Syafiq Kamarul Azman, Hema Vurivi, Zainab Alhalwachi, Fatima Alshehhi, Safiya AlShamsi, Nada Al Marzouqi, Tayba Alawadi, Hussain Alrand, Abderrahim Oulhaj, Asma Fikri, Habiba Alsafar

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Introduction: A rapid increase in COVID-19 cases due to the spread of the Delta and Omicron variants in vaccinated populations has raised concerns about the hospitalization risk associated with, and the effectiveness of, COVID-19 vaccines. Method: This case–control study aims to determine the hospitalization risk associated with the inactivated BBIBP-CorV (Sinopharm) and mRNA BNT162b2 (Pfizer–BionTech) vaccines, and their effectiveness reducing the rate of hospital admission between 28 May 2021 and 13 January 2022, during the Delta and Omicron outbreaks. The estimation of vaccine effectiveness of 4,618 samples was based on the number of patients hospitalized at different vaccination statuses, adjusted for confounding variables. Results: Hospitalization risk increases in patients affected with the Omicron variant if patients are aged ≤ 18 years (OR 6.41, 95% CI 2.90 to 14.17; p < 0.001), and in patients affected with the Delta variant if they are aged > 45 years (OR 3.41, 95% CI 2.21 to 5.50; p < 0.001). Vaccine effectiveness reducing the rate of hospital admission for fully vaccinated participants infected with the Delta and Omicron variants was similar for both the BBIBP-CorV (94%, 95% CI 90% to 97%; 90%, 95% CI 74% to 96%) and BNT162b2 vaccines (95%, 95% CI 61% to 99.3%; 94%, 95% CI 53% to 99%), respectively. Discussion: The BBIBP-CorV and BNT162b2 vaccines utilized in the UAE vaccination program were highly effective in reducing the rate of COVID-19-related hospitalization during the Delta and Omicron outbreaks, and further effort must be taken to achieve high vaccine coverage rates in children and adolescents in the global context to reduce the hospitalization risk associated with COVID-19 on an international scale.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1049393
JournalFrontiers in immunology
Volume14
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2023
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • COVID-19
  • Delta
  • Omicron
  • SARS-CoV-2
  • UAE
  • hospitalization
  • vaccine effectiveness

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology

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