Self-doped Ti3+ mediated TiO2/In2O3/SWCNTs heterojunction composite under acidic/basic heat medium for boosting visible light induced H2 evolution

Muhammad Umer, Muhammad Tahir, Muhammad Usman Azam, Beenish Tahir, Mohammad Musaab

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

19 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Well-designed Ti3+/In3+ mediated TiO2/SWCNTs heterojunction composite for photocatalytic H2 evolution under visible light has been investigated. The samples, fabricated through one-step sol-gel approach with controlled acidic/basic heat treatment environment, were characterized by XRD, Raman, FE-SEM, TEM, XPS, UV–Vis and PL techniques. The maximum H2 of 1244 ppm h−1 was evolved over In/SWCNTs/TiO2, a 4.69, 1.54 and 1.53 times higher than using TiO2, In/TiO2 and SWCNTs/TiO2 samples, respectively. This enhancement was due to faster charges separation and higher visible light absorption by synergistic effect of In/SWCNTs. Using catalyst prepared under basic (H2)treatment, Ti3+ was successfully embedded into In+3@TiO2@SWCNTs, exhibited H2 production of 1446 ppm h−1 which was 12.49% and 15.02% higher compared to catalysts prepared under CO2 and N2 atmospheres, respectively. Thus, surface defects like Ti3+ inhibits charges recombination and enables visible light responsive. The quantum yield over Ti3+/In3+ mediated TiO2/SWCNTs composite was 0.251%, a 1.13 and 1.2 folds higher compared to CO2 and N2 atmospheres, respectively. Besides, excellent stability for H2 generation was observed in cyclic runs. A possible mechanism is proposed to understand synergistic effects between Ti+3/In+3 in TiO2/SWCNTs composite catalyst and has great potential as a green photocatalyst in environmental and energy applications.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)13466-13479
Number of pages14
JournalInternational Journal of Hydrogen Energy
Volume44
Issue number26
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - May 21 2019
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Acid/basic heat treatment
  • Heterojunction
  • In/TiO
  • SWCNTs
  • Ti defects
  • Water splitting for H evolution

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Fuel Technology
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology

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