Solid-state foaming process optimization for the production of shape memory polymer composite foam

Tamem Salah, Aiman Ziout

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


This research examined the optimization of the sustainable manufacturing process for polyester-based polymers/Fe3 O4 nanocomposite foaming. The foamed structure was achieved by using a solid-state foaming process, where the prepared foams were tested in order to ascertain the optimum foaming parameters with the highest foaming ratios and the lowest foaming densities. The foaming parameters used in this research were the polymer type, nanoparticle percentage, packing pressure, holding time, foaming temperature, and foaming time. Two levels were selected for each factor, and a Taguchi plan was designed to determine the number of experiments required to reach a conclusion. Further characterization techniques, namely, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used with the original samples to gain a better understanding of their structure and chemical composition. The data analysis showed that regardless of the parameters used, a high foaming ratio resulted in a low density. The introduction of nanoparticles (NPs) to the polymer structure resulted in higher foaming ratios. This increment in foaming ratio was noticeable on Corro-Coat PE Series 7® (CC) polymer more than Jotun Super Durable 2903® (JSD). The optimum parameters to prepare the highest foaming ratios were as follows: CC polymer with 2% NPs, compressed under a pressure of 10 K lbs. for a 3 min holding time and foamed at 290 C for 15 min in the oven.

Original languageEnglish
Article number3433
JournalApplied Sciences (Switzerland)
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2 2021


  • Shape memory composite
  • Shape memory composite foam
  • Solid-state foaming

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Materials Science
  • Instrumentation
  • General Engineering
  • Process Chemistry and Technology
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Fluid Flow and Transfer Processes


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