Source control in emergency general surgery: WSES, GAIS, SIS-E, SIS-A guidelines

Federico Coccolini, Massimo Sartelli, Robert Sawyer, Kemal Rasa, Bruno Viaggi, Fikri Abu-Zidan, Kjetil Soreide, Timothy Hardcastle, Deepak Gupta, Cino Bendinelli, Marco Ceresoli, Vishal G. Shelat, Richard ten Broek, Gian Luca Baiocchi, Ernest E. Moore, Ibrahima Sall, Mauro Podda, Luigi Bonavina, Igor A. Kryvoruchko, Philip StahelKenji Inaba, Philippe Montravers, Boris Sakakushev, Gabriele Sganga, Paolo Ballestracci, Manu L.N.G. Malbrain, Jean Louis Vincent, Manos Pikoulis, Solomon Gurmu Beka, Krstina Doklestic, Massimo Chiarugi, Marco Falcone, Elena Bignami, Viktor Reva, Zaza Demetrashvili, Salomone Di Saverio, Matti Tolonen, Pradeep Navsaria, Miklosh Bala, Zsolt Balogh, Andrey Litvin, Andreas Hecker, Imtiaz Wani, Andreas Fette, Belinda De Simone, Rao Ivatury, Edoardo Picetti, Vladimir Khokha, Edward Tan, Chad Ball, Carlo Tascini, Yunfeng Cui, Raul Coimbra, Michael Kelly, Costanza Martino, Vanni Agnoletti, Marja A. Boermeester, Nicola De’Angelis, Mircea Chirica, Walt L. Biffl, Luca Ansaloni, Yoram Kluger, Fausto Catena, Andrew W. Kirkpatrick

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

11 Citations (Scopus)


Intra-abdominal infections (IAI) are among the most common global healthcare challenges and they are usually precipitated by disruption to the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Their successful management typically requires intensive resource utilization, and despite the best therapies, morbidity and mortality remain high. One of the main issues required to appropriately treat IAI that differs from the other etiologies of sepsis is the frequent requirement to provide physical source control. Fortunately, dramatic advances have been made in this aspect of treatment. Historically, source control was left to surgeons only. With new technologies non-surgical less invasive interventional procedures have been introduced. Alternatively, in addition to formal surgery open abdomen techniques have long been proposed as aiding source control in severe intra-abdominal sepsis. It is ironic that while a lack or even delay regarding source control clearly associates with death, it is a concept that remains poorly described. For example, no conclusive definition of source control technique or even adequacy has been universally accepted. Practically, source control involves a complex definition encompassing several factors including the causative event, source of infection bacteria, local bacterial flora, patient condition, and his/her eventual comorbidities. With greater understanding of the systemic pathobiology of sepsis and the profound implications of the human microbiome, adequate source control is no longer only a surgical issue but one that requires a multidisciplinary, multimodality approach. Thus, while any breach in the GI tract must be controlled, source control should also attempt to control the generation and propagation of the systemic biomediators and dysbiotic influences on the microbiome that perpetuate multi-system organ failure and death. Given these increased complexities, the present paper represents the current opinions and recommendations for future research of the World Society of Emergency Surgery, of the Global Alliance for Infections in Surgery of Surgical Infection Society Europe and Surgical Infection Society America regarding the concepts and operational adequacy of source control in intra-abdominal infections.

Original languageEnglish
Article number41
JournalWorld Journal of Emergency Surgery
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2023


  • Abdominal
  • Antibiotic
  • Emergency
  • Infections
  • Mortality
  • Source control
  • Stewardship
  • Surgery
  • Trauma

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Emergency Medicine


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