Spatio-temporal patterns and quantification of lake–groundwater interaction determined in a large water transfer lake

Ling Xiong, Ala Aldahan, Ruizhi Qian, Peng Yi, Xuegao Chen, Kai Li, Jinzhu Fang, Lu Wang, Peng He

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


The exchange rate is often characterized by spatio-temporal heterogeneity, but the spatio-temporal patterns of exchange rate have rarely been quantified, especially in water transfer lakes. This study was conducted from March to July 2021. The tracer data of δ2H, δ18O (n = 121), 222Rn (n = 522), Cl (n = 151), TDS (n = 155) in lake water, shallow groundwater (7–10 m), deep groundwater (25–40 m), and an improved single-well radon model were applied in 3 (A, B and C) typical areas (~1 km2) of the Hongze lake. The results show that during the water transfer period (March to May) the rising lake level from normal water level (13 m asl) to the storage level (13.5 m asl), caused the exchange rate to increase from −6.3 × 10−7 to 33.2 × 10−7 m/s. All tracers in groundwater of A and C were continuously diluted by lake water, but shown a better mixing of the lake water, shallow and deep groundwater in area B with a water transfer channel/river (~−100 m3/s). In rainstorm season (June and July), the exchange rate changed from 3.4 × 10−7 to −44.8 × 10−7 m/s due to the high groundwater table (13–15 m asl) caused by flood and rainstorm. The rainstorm imposed the inflow of both shallow and deep groundwater into lake in river areas (A and B), but only shallow groundwater recharged lake in non-river area (C). Additionally, the exchange rate of the whole lake was estimated by the water balance equation, which varied between −1011 and 458 m3/s with an average of −26 m3/s. Finally, a conceptual model of exchange rate among lake, shallow and deep groundwater under spatio-temporal heterogeneity is proposed. The findings offer better understanding of the spatio-temporal heterogeneity of lake–groundwater interaction and the effects on lake water balance and recharge systems.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere14867
JournalHydrological Processes
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2023


  • exchange rate
  • groundwater
  • radon
  • stable isotopes
  • the Hongze lake
  • water

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Water Science and Technology


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