Spiritual Wellbeing of International Students: A New Zealand Case Study

Mandeep Bhullar, Qilong Zhang, Ke Jiang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Wellbeing of international students is an extensively explored topic in international education discourses. A plethora of research has been devoted to general wellbeing of international students. Nevertheless, little is known about international students’ spiritual wellbeing which can be pivotal to their adaptation to the new environment. In the context of New Zealand higher education, utilizing an intrinsic single case study design, this study examined spiritual wellbeing experienced by Indian international students. Phenomenographic interviews were conducted with 13 Indian students who were studying management courses at postgraduate level in an institute of technology in a North Island city of New Zealand. Data analysis generated three dimensions (spiritual cognition, spiritual practice, spiritual efficacy) of spiritual wellbeing which were influenced by four strategies of adaptation (connection, isolation, accommodation, integration). This study provided new insights into the experiences of international students which may influence international education in the long run.

Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Studies in International Education
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 2023


  • adaptation
  • Indian
  • international student
  • New Zealand
  • spiritual wellbeing

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education


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