Sports Nutrition Knowledge Questionnaires Developed for the Athletic Population: a Systematic Review

Ranil Jayawardena, Kalani Weerasinghe, Gina Trakman, Terrence Madhujith, Andrew P. Hills, Nishan Sudheera Kalupahana

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Purpose of Review: Sports nutrition (SN) is pivotal in aiding athletes to reach peak performance, minimize sport-related injuries, enhance career longevity, and improve general health. An accurate assessment of athletes’ sports nutrition knowledge (SNK) is required to design targeted nutrition education programs aimed at enhancing both nutritional knowledge and dietary practices. This review systematically evaluates studies that use questionnaires to assess the SNK of athletes engaged in athletics. Recent Findings: The literature search was conducted in PubMed®, Web of Science®, and Scopus®, and 375 potentially relevant articles were identified. The total number of articles included in the present review is 11, with eight studies involving only athletic disciplines and three involving athletics and other sports. Summary: The majority (n = 8) of the questionnaires included general and SN aspects, with SN covering endurance athletes’ knowledge of competition carbohydrate guidelines, gastrointestinal symptoms associated with exercise, and ultra-endurance athletes’ sodium beliefs and practices. Questionnaires were either delivered online (n = 7) or self-administered in hard copy (n = 1). The three major strategies identified for developing questionnaires were based on previous literature and recent SN guidelines (n = 6), consultation with a panel of experts (n = 7), and the use of a previously developed sports nutrition knowledge questionnaires (SNKQ) (n = 4), with more than one approach used in five studies. Similarly, up to three validation approaches were used, including content, face, and construct validity. Seven studies used a test-retest procedure to ensure external reliability, and eight used Cronbach’s alpha or kappa coefficient to assess internal consistency. Endurance and ultra-endurance athletes are the populations of interest for the majority of questionnaires developed for athletics, with most questionnaires incorporating general and SNK topics.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)767-777
Number of pages11
JournalCurrent Nutrition Reports
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2023
Externally publishedYes


  • Assessment
  • Diet
  • Knowledge
  • Nutrition
  • Questionnaire
  • Sport
  • Survey

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science
  • Nutrition and Dietetics


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