The development of new therapeutic strategies is on the increase for prostate cancer stem cells, owing to current standardized therapies for prostate cancer, including chemotherapy, androgen deprivation therapy (ADT), radiotherapy, and surgery, often failing because of tumor relapse ability. Ultimately, tumor relapse develops into advanced castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), which becomes an irreversible and systemic disease. Hence, early identification of the intracellular components and molecular networks that promote prostate cancer is crucial for disease management and therapeutic intervention. One of the potential therapeutic methods for aggressive prostate cancer is to target prostate cancer stem cells (PCSCs), which appear to be a primary focal point of cancer metastasis and recurrence and are resistant to standardized therapies. PCSCs have also been documented to play a major role in regulating tumorigenesis, sphere formation, and the metastasis ability of prostate cancer with their stemness features. Therefore, the current review highlights the origin and identification of PCSCs and their role in anti-androgen resistance, as well as stemness-related signaling pathways. In addition, the review focuses on the current advanced therapeutic strategies for targeting PCSCs that are helping to prevent prostate cancer initiation and progression, such as microRNAs (miRNAs), nanotechnology, chemotherapy, immunotherapy, the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9) gene-editing system, and photothermal ablation (PTA) therapy.
- cancer stem cells
- photothermal ablation therapy
- prostate cancer
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research