Exopolysaccharides (EPSs) possess distinctive rheological and physicochemical properties and innovative functionality. This study aimed to investigate the physicochemical, bioactive, and rheological properties of an EPS secreted by Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis C15. EPS-C15 was found to have an average molecular weight of 8.8 × 105 Da and was identified as a hetero-EPS composed of arabinose, xylose, mannose, and glucose with a molar ratio of 2.0:2.7:1.0:21.3, respectively. The particle size and zeta potential represented 311.2 nm and − 12.44 mV, respectively. FITR exhibited that EPS-C15 possessed a typical polysaccharide structure. NMR displayed that EPS-C15 structure is → 3)α-d-Glcvi (1 → 3)α-d-Xylv (1 → 6)α-d-Glciv(1 → 4)α-d-Glc(1 → 3)β-d-Man(1 → 2)α-d-Glci(1 →. EPS-C15 scavenged DPPH and ABTS free radicals with 50.3% and 46.4% capacities, respectively. Results show that the antiproliferative activities of EPS-C15 revealed inhibitions of 49.7% and 88.1% against MCF-7 and Caco-2 cells, respectively. EPS-C15 has antibacterial properties that inhibited Staphylococcus aureus (29.45%), Salmonella typhimurium (29.83%), Listeria monocytogenes (30.33%), and E. coli O157:H7 (33.57%). The viscosity of EPS-C15 decreased as the shear rate increased. The rheological properties of the EPS-C15 were affected by changes in pH levels and the addition of salts. EPS-C15 is a promising biomaterial that has potential applications in various industries, such as food, pharmaceuticals, and healthcare.
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