Structural performance and serviceability of concrete beams reinforced with hybrid (GFRP and steel) bars

Ahmed El Refai, Farid Abed, Abdullah Al-Rahmani

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

140 Citations (Scopus)


This paper reports on the structural performance of concrete beams reinforced with hybrid reinforcement. Six concrete beams reinforced with a combination of steel and glass fiber-reinforced polymer (GFRP) bars and three other beams reinforced with only GFRP bars were tested in flexure. Over-reinforced hybrid beams showed higher strength and ductility than their GFRP-reinforced counterparts. The CSA-S806-12 equation accurately predicted the deflections of the hybrid-reinforced beams with high effective reinforcement ratios. Based on the test results, a bond coefficient was proposed to predict the crack width of the hybrid-reinforced beams using the ACI-440.1R-06 equation. A modified deformability factor was also utilized to assess the deformability of the hybrid-reinforced beams. Comparison between the experimental and predicted results showed the adequacy of the models used in predicting the load-carrying capacity, deflection, crack widths, and deformability of hybrid-reinforced concrete beams.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)518-529
Number of pages12
JournalConstruction and Building Materials
Publication statusPublished - Aug 24 2015
Externally publishedYes


  • Composite materials
  • Concrete beams
  • Cracking
  • Deformation
  • Ductility
  • Fiber reinforced polymer
  • Glass fiber
  • Hybrid methods
  • Reinforced concrete
  • Serviceability

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Civil and Structural Engineering
  • Building and Construction
  • General Materials Science


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