Study of structural properties and defects of Ni-doped SnO2 nanorods as ethanol gas sensors

Vicinisvarri Inderan, M. M. Arafat, Sudesh Kumar, A. S.M.A. Haseeb, Zhong Tao Jiang, Mohammednoor Altarawneh, Hooi Ling Lee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

27 Citations (Scopus)


An ethanol gas sensor with enhanced sensor response was fabricated using Ni-doped SnO2 nanorods, synthesized via a simple hydrothermal method. It was found that the response (R = R 0/R g) of a 5.0 mol% Ni-doped SnO2 (5.0Ni:SnO2) nanorod sensor was 1.4 104 for 1000 ppm C2H5OH gas, which is about 13 times higher than that of pure SnO2 nanorods, (1.1 103) at the operating temperature of 450 °C. Moreover, for 50 ppm C2H5OH gas, the 5.0Ni:SnO2 nanorod sensor still recorded a significant response reading, namely 2.0 103 with a response time of 30 s and recovery time of 10 min. To investigate the effect of Ni dopant (0.5-5.0 mol%) on SnO2 nanorods, structural characterizations were demonstrated using field emission scanning electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and an ultraviolet-visible spectrometer. XRD results confirmed that all the samples consisted of tetragonal-shaped rutile SnO2 nanorods. It was found that the average diameter and length of the nanorods formed in 5.0Ni:SnO2 were four times smaller (∼6 and ∼35 nm, respectively) than those of the nanorods formed in pure SnO2 (∼25 and 150 nm). Interestingly, both samples had the same aspect ratio, ∼6. It is proposed that the high response of the 5.0Ni:SnO2 nanorod sensor can be attributed to the particle size, which causes an increase in the thickness of the charge depletion layer, and the presence of oxygen vacancies within the matrix of SnO2 nanorods.

Original languageEnglish
Article number265702
Issue number26
Publication statusPublished - Jun 8 2017
Externally publishedYes


  • ethanol
  • gas sensor
  • hydrothermal
  • nanorods
  • nickel doped
  • tin oxide

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Bioengineering
  • General Chemistry
  • General Materials Science
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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