Sulfamethoxazole as a ligand to synthesize di- and tri-alkyltin(IV) complexes and using as excellent photo-stabilizers for PVC

Emad Alhaydary, Emad Yousif, Mohammed H. Al-Mashhadani, Dina S. Ahmed, Ali H. Jawad, Muna Bufaroosha, Ahmed A. Ahmed

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

13 Citations (Scopus)


In this work, three new di- and tri-organotin(IV) complex Ph3SnL, Bu3SnL, and Me2SnL2 were successfully synthesized by reacting sulfamethoxazole drug as a ligand with different alkyl metal. The synthesized complexes were fully characterized by fourier transform infrared, 1proton nuclear magnetic resonance, 13carbon nuclear magnetic resonance, 119tin nuclear magnetic resonance and ultraviolet–visible spectroscopies. Field emission scanning electronic microscopy was also applied to study the surface morphology of synthesized complexes. Using above techniques it was confirmed the chemical structure and purity of synthesized materials. In this work, these materials have been used as photo-stabilizers of PVC to reduce the photo-degradation of its polymeric chains. Many approaches were exhibited to evaluate the efficiency of prepared organotin(IV) complexes as photo-stabilizers such as FTIR, UV, weight loss, gel content, viscosity average molecular weight, light microscope, atomic force microscope, field emission scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive X-Ray (EDX) mapping. These studies were in agreement and demonstrated that new complexes work as excellent photo-stabilizers of PVC. Thus they reduce the photo-degradation of PVC films containing these complexes compare to blank PVC after irradiation for 300 h by UV light at wavelength 313 nm. It has also demonstrated that Ph3SnL shows the best result as photo-stabilizer. This is because the complex has highly conjugation system by three phenyl groups compare to other complexes. The outcomes have been got in this study is significantly important to decrease the consumption of PVC around the world which is causing huge threaten to the environment especially the marine eco-system.

Original languageEnglish
Article number469
JournalJournal of Polymer Research
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2021


  • Blend films
  • Di-alkyltin(IV) complex
  • PVC
  • Photo-stabilizers
  • Sulfamethoxazole
  • Surface morphology
  • Tri-alkyltin(IV) complex

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Polymers and Plastics
  • Organic Chemistry
  • Materials Chemistry


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