Sulfonated mesoporous TUD-1: An innovative environmentally friendly solid acid catalyst for various organic transformations

Moataz Morad, Abdelrahman S. Khder, Hatem M. Altass, Ziad Moussa, Menna A. Khder, Awad I. Ahmed, Saleh A. Ahmed

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


TUD-1, a novel sponge-like three-dimensional mesoporous silica material, was synthesized in one-step using a hydrothermal technique and triethanolamine as a template. To enhance its acidic properties, the TUD-1 material underwent sulfonation with varying amounts of sulfonic groups (1 and 3 wt%). Structural characteristics were determined using XRD, FTIR, Raman, BET analysis, HRTEM, SEM, and XPS. Surface acidities of the catalysts were evaluated through non-aqueous potentiometric titration and FTIR analysis of chemisorbed pyridine. The performance of catalysts was assessed in various reactions, including the Pechmann reaction, Friedel-Crafts acylation reaction, and Biginelli reaction for synthesis of 7-hydroxy-4-methyl-2H-chromen-2-one, aromatic ketones and 3, 4-dihydropyrimidin-2(1H)-one. The findings confirm that the TUD-1 mesoporous structure did not undergo any significant alteration post sulfonation. The sulfonated catalysts exhibited higher surface acidities than TUD-1. A correlation between surface acidity, particularly Brönsted acid sites, and catalytic efficiency in selected reactions was evident from both catalytic testing and characterization. Under moderate conditions, TUD-1-3SO3H exhibited outstanding catalytic performance and remarkable reusability across all selected reactions.

Original languageEnglish
Article number101583
JournalResults in Chemistry
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2024


  • Biginelli reaction
  • Catalysis
  • Friedel-Crafts acylation
  • Pechmann reaction
  • Solid acid
  • TUD-1

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Chemistry


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