Survey of Personalized Learning Software Systems: A Taxonomy of Environments, Learning Content, and User Models

Heba Ismail, Nada Hussein, Saad Harous, Ashraf Khalil

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)


This paper presents a comprehensive systematic review of personalized learning software systems. All the systems under review are designed to aid educational stakeholders by personalizing one or more facets of the learning process. This is achieved by exploring and analyzing the common architectural attributes among personalized learning software systems. A literature-driven taxonomy is recognized and built to categorize and analyze the reviewed literature. Relevant papers are filtered to produce a final set of full systems to be reviewed and analyzed. In this meta-review, a set of 72 selected personalized learning software systems have been reviewed and categorized based on the proposed personalized learning taxonomy. The proposed taxonomy outlines the three main architectural components of any personalized learning software system: learning environment, learner model, and content. It further defines the different realizations and attributions of each component. Surveyed systems have been analyzed under the proposed taxonomy according to their architectural components, usage, strengths, and weaknesses. Then, the role of these systems in the development of the field of personalized learning systems is discussed. This review sheds light on the field’s current challenges that need to be resolved in the upcoming years.

Original languageEnglish
Article number741
JournalEducation Sciences
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2023
Externally publishedYes


  • glossary
  • learner models
  • learning content
  • learning environments
  • personalized learning software systems
  • personalized learning software systems architecture
  • taxonomy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Computer Science (miscellaneous)
  • Education
  • Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology
  • Public Administration
  • Computer Science Applications


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