Tannic Acid Mitigates Rotenone-Induced Dopaminergic Neurodegeneration by Inhibiting Inflammation, Oxidative Stress, Apoptosis, and Glutamate Toxicity in Rats

Sheikh Azimullah, Mohamed Fizur Nagoor Meeran, Khatija Ayoob, Seenipandi Arunachalam, Shreesh Ojha, Rami Beiram

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


Parkinson’s disease (PD), a movement disorder, is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) region of the brain. The etiopathogenesis of PD involves increased oxidative stress, augmented inflammation, impaired autophagy, accumulation of α-synuclein, and α-Glutamate neurotoxicity. The treatment of PD is limited and there is a lack of agents to prevent the disease/delay its progression and inhibit the onset of pathogenic events. Many agents of natural and synthetic origin have been investigated employing experimental models of PD, mimicking human PD. In the present study, we assessed the effect of tannic acid (TA) in a rodent model of PD induced by rotenone (ROT), a pesticide and an environmental toxin of natural origin reported to cause PD in agricultural workers and farmers. Rotenone (2.5 mg/kg/day, i.p.) was administered for 28 days, and TA (50 mg/kg, orally) was administered 30 min before ROT injections. The study results showed an increase in oxidative stress, as evidenced by the depletion of endogenous antioxidants and enhanced formation of lipid peroxidation products, along with the onset of inflammation following a rise in inflammatory mediators and proinflammatory cytokines. ROT injections have also augmented apoptosis, impaired autophagy, promoted synaptic loss, and perturbed α-Glutamate hyperpolarization in rats. ROT injections also induced the loss of dopaminergic neurons subsequent to the activation of microglia and astrocytes. However, TA treatment was observed to reduce lipid peroxidation, prevent loss of endogenous antioxidants, and inhibit the release and synthesis of proinflammatory cytokines, in addition to the favorable modulation of apoptosis and autophagic pathways. Treatment with TA also attenuated the activation of microglia and astrocytes along with preservation of dopaminergic neurons following reduced loss of dopaminergic neurodegeneration and inhibition of synaptic loss and α-Glutamate cytotoxicity. The effects of TA in ROT-induced PD were attributed to the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiapoptotic, and neurogenesis properties. Based on the present study findings, it can be concluded that TA may be a promising novel therapeutic candidate for pharmaceutical as well as nutraceutical development owing to its neuroprotective properties in PD. Further regulatory toxicology and translational studies are suggested for future clinical usage in PD.

Original languageEnglish
Article number9876
JournalInternational journal of molecular sciences
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2023


  • Parkinson’s disease
  • autophagy
  • inflammation
  • oxidative stress
  • rotenone
  • tannic acid
  • α-Glutamate

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Catalysis
  • Molecular Biology
  • Spectroscopy
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Organic Chemistry
  • Inorganic Chemistry


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