Testicular histopathology and follicular stimulating hormone to predict fertility in nonobstructive azoospermia

Faris Abushamma, Rami S. Alazab, Mohammed Z. Allouh, Rafeef Abu Shamleh, Rola Abu Alwafa, Ibrahim Ghalayini

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Purpose: To examine the ability of testicular histopathology in Non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA) in predicting sperm retrieval rate (SR), sperm quality and assisted reproductive technology success. Methods: A retrospective study recruited clinically diagnosed NOA patients between 2007 and 2015. Testicular biopsy and conventional sperm extraction (TESE) were done concomitantly. Correlation between pathological categories, SR rate, sperm quality and success of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) was studied. FSH was measured as a predictor of fertility. Results: One hundred eighteen patients were recruited. Histopathological classification was hypospermatogenesis (HS) 45 (38%), maturation arrest (MA) 22(19%), Sertoli cell only syndrome (SCOS) 34 (29%) and normal spermatogenesis (NS) 17 (14%). FSH value was above normal level in 34 (76%) of HS, 19 (86%) of MA, 32 (94%) of SCOS and 5 (29%) of NS. Positive SR was obtained in 108 (92%) patients. The highest SR rate was seen in NS group 100% and the lowest was in SCOS 26 (77%). The worst sperm quality was found in SCOS as type C represents 46%, followed by MA 40% and HS 24%. Patients had ICSI following TESE had variable success rate as success of ICSI was seen (9/15) for HS, (0/7) for MA, (5/15) for SCOS and (8/9) for NS. FSH is strongly correlated to SR, quality of sperm and success of ICSI as positive SR in normal FSH patients was obtained in 28 (100%) of normal FSH, 70 (97%) of high FSH and 10 (56%) of double high FSH (p value < 001). The success of ICSI significantly correlates with FSH value as normal FSH has 77% success ICSI rate, high FSH (52%) and double high FSH (0%) (p value < 0.001). Conclusions: Testicular biopsy and histopathology findings in NOA are strongly correlated SR rate, quality of sperms, and success of ICSI. FSH is a strong noninvasive predictor of fertility in NOA patients.

Original languageEnglish
JournalUrologia Journal
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 2024


  • azoospermia
  • FSH
  • ICSI
  • sperm quality
  • TESE predictors
  • testicular biopsy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Urology


Dive into the research topics of 'Testicular histopathology and follicular stimulating hormone to predict fertility in nonobstructive azoospermia'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this