The combined effects of the minimum miscibility pressure and injection rate variations on recovery of co2 flooding in sandstone reservoir

Mohammed Abdalla Ayoub, Bennet Nii Tackie-Otoo, Siti Hidmayati Binti Zulkefli

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


One of the most effective enhanced oil recovery techniques is carbon dioxide (CO2) flooding. It is because of its high oil recovery rate and associated advantage on the environment. CO2 flooding has been broadly used and commercially proven. Depending on the reservoir and operational conditions, it can be implemented either in immiscible or miscible modes. Determining the injection mode depends on the minimum miscibility pressure (MMP). The conventional ways of determining the MMP (slim-tube experiments, supercritical extractor, etc.) are costly and time-consuming. A simulation approach has been deployed to determine the MMP of a synthetic reservoir model using a one-dimension compositional slim-tube model in ECLIPSE300. The MMP was also determined using the group method of data handling (GMDH) and other existing correlations. The MMP determined by slim-tube simulation was ~ 4176 psia. Comparing the MMPs of the correlations to the slim-tube simulation, the correlation by Maklavani et al. (Braz J Pet, 2010) was the most accurate with a mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) of 0.79%. The GDMH and the correlation of Firoozabadi and Khalid had MAPEs of 4.96% and 6.06%, respectively. The GMDH model introduced in this study was not as accurate as the correlation by Maklavani et al. (Braz J Pet, 2010). The model could be improved, or other machine learning models with improved training and prediction could be deployed to estimate MMP more accurately. A synthetic reservoir model based on literature data was used to investigate the effect of the MMP and injection rate on oil recovery by CO2 flooding. The impact of MMP was investigated by the miscible and immiscible flooding scenarios. The injection rate was varied in each scenario to determine the optimum injection rate. However, the scenarios with optimum injection rates for both miscible and immiscible CO2 injection were compared to a waterflood scenario. The optimum injection rates for miscible and immiscible flooding were 2800 and 2200 Mscf/day, respectively. The oil recovery efficiencies for the optimum miscible and immiscible injection were 48% and 46%, respectively. In this study, miscible flooding proved to be the more effective method in oil recovery. However, considering the difference in oil recovery and the difficulty in achieving miscibility, the immiscible CO2 flooding proves to be the feasible option for improving oil recovery.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2899-2913
Number of pages15
JournalJournal of Petroleum Exploration and Production Technology
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2022
Externally publishedYes


  • CO flooding
  • Injection rate variations
  • Minimum miscibility pressure

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Geotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology
  • General Energy


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