The Economic Burden of Diabetic Retinopathy in Jordan: Cost Analysis and Associated Factors

Rami A. Al-Dwairi, Abdelwahab Aleshawi, Laith Abu-Zreig, Wafa Al-Shorman, Seren Al Beiruti, Ali Omar Alshami, Mohammed Z. Allouh

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objective: Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is the leading cause of visual loss worldwide in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). The aims of our study are to describe the costs associated with (DR) and to evaluate its economic impact in Jordan. Methods: Retrospectively, we included all patients with DM and classified them according to the severity of DR. Data regarding medical history, ophthalmic history, stage of DR, presence of DME, and the ophthalmic procedures and operations were collected. The total DR-related cost was measured as a direct medical cost for the outpatient and inpatient services. Results: Two hundred and twenty-nine patients were included in the study. Only 49.7% of the patients presented without DR, and 21% presented with diabetic macular edema (DME) unilaterally or bilaterally. The DR-related cost was significantly associated with insulin-based regimens, longer duration of DM, higher HbA1c levels, worse stage of DR at presentation, the presence of DME at presentation, the presence of glaucoma, and increased mean number of intravitreal injections, laser sessions, and surgical operations. Multivariate analysis should the presenting stage of DR, presence of DME, and the presence of DME be the independent factors affecting the DR-related cost. Conclusion: This study is the first study to be conducted in Jordan and encourages us to establish a screening program for DR for earlier detection and treatment. DM control and treatment compliance will reduce the heavy costs of the already exhausted healthcare and financial system.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)161-171
Number of pages11
JournalClinicoEconomics and Outcomes Research
Publication statusPublished - 2024


  • diabetic macular edema
  • diabetic retinopathy
  • economic burden
  • intravitreal injections

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Economics, Econometrics and Finance (miscellaneous)
  • Health Policy


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