In this study, leaf and frond date palm waste as feedstock was used to derive biochars. The effects of pyrolysis temperatures on their physical and chemical properties, and their capacity to remove copper, iron, nickel and zinc from single and multi-metal solutions at various pH values were investigated. Analytical and spectroscopic techniques such as scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, sulfur elemental analysis, Brunauer Emmett Teller analysis were conducted for characterization. The pore volume, surface area, pH, and total carbon content of date palm leaf and frond biochar increased while functional groups and hydrogen, nitrogen and oxygen content of biochar decreased with increasing pyrolysis temperature compared to feedstock. The removal efficiencies and sorption capacity for single and mixed metal ions were found between 98 and close to 100% and 2.4 and 3.0 mg g− 1 by leaf and frond biochar samples at pH > 6, respectively. Biochar obtained from different feedstock at different pyrolysis temperature did not show any statistically significant improvements on the removal of single or mixed metals from aqueous solutions. The date palm leaf or frond biochar obtained at low pyrolysis temperature is as effective to remove metals as the ones obtained at high pyrolysis temperatures. Therefore, to consume less energy to produce biochar at lower temperature which exhibits same effective removal efficiency will be a win-win solution in terms of sustainability and economy. As a result, date palm waste biochar can be effectively used to remove metals in water and wastewater.
- Date palm
- Mixed metals
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Environmental Engineering
- Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
- Water Science and Technology
- Waste Management and Disposal