In the streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic rat major increases in noradrenaline concentration and content of the seminal vesicles were evident as early as 7 weeks following induction of hyperglycemia and returned toward normal after 34 weeks of hyperglycemia. There were significant reductions in the concentration and content of dopamine at 19-42 weeks of diabetes, and small occasionally significant reductions in the content of serotonin and adrenaline, particularly around 19-26 weeks after STZ treatment. The uptake of tritiated noradrenaline in the diabetics was increased at 12 weeks compared to the controls, and decreased to control levels with increasing age. Release of tritiated noradrenline was increased in response to electrical field stimulation and high potassium solutions, and raising calcium concentration caused increased release at rest and during electrical stimulation. Immunohistochemical demonstration of tyrosine hydroxylase was increased during the period when the noradrenaline concentration and content were elevated. It is concluded that there are significant changes in the sympathetic innervation of the seminal vesicle during the course of STZ diabetes, and that alterations in the reuptake, release, and synthesis of the neurotransmitter noradrenaline may contribute to changes in the concentration of the amine in the tissue. It is possible that the changes observed are related to the remodeling and regrowth of sympathetic nerve endings damaged in the early stages of hyperglycemia. These changes may also contribute to disorders of ejaculation in diabetes.