Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have been reported to benefit from different types of exercises. It has also been shown that the ACE inhibitor lisinopril, and the natural product curcumin are also beneficial in different models of CKD in rats. We assessed the influence of moderate swimming exercise (SE) on rats with adenine-induced CKD, and tested the possible effects of lisinopril and/or curcumin thereon using several physiological, biochemical, histopathological and immunohistochemical parameters. Rats (either sedentary or subjected to SE) were randomly divided into several groups, and given for five weeks either normal food or food mixed with adenine (0.25% w/w) to induce CKD. Some of these groups were also concomitantly treated orally with curcumin (75 mg/kg), or lisinopril (10 mg/kg) and were subjected to moderate SE (45 min/day three days each week). Rats fed adenine showed the typical biochemical, histopathological signs of CKD such as elevations in blood pressure, urinary albumin / creatinine ratio, and plasma urea, creatinine, indoxyl sulfate and phosphorus. SE, curcumin or lisinopril, given singly, significantly ameliorated all the adenine-induced actions. Administering curcumin or lisinopril with SE improved the histopathology of the kidneys, a salutary effect not seen with SE alone. Combining SE to the nephroprotective agents' curcumin or lisinopril might offer additional nephroprotection.
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