The Embodied Energy Assessment of Various Building Assemblies in Residential Building Construction

Abdul Rauf, Daniel Efurosibina Attoye, Robert Crawford

Research output: Contribution to journalConference articlepeer-review


Energy consumption in the construction and building industry is associated with significant depletion of natural resources, release of greenhouse gases emissions and related environmental impacts worldwide. An understanding of the direct and indirect, operational, and embodied, as well as life cycle consumption patterns due to building architecture plays a major role in reducing the negative impact of buildings. A review of existing literature shows that there is much less research on the impact of embodied energy and there is a need to provide a clear basis to substantiate its veracity. Previous studies on embodied energy have mainly focused on the overall embodied energy of different building types. However, there is limited focus on the embodied energy associated with various assemblies in a building. In efforts to reduce the embodied energy of buildings, it is important to understand the energy associated with various assemblies in a building. Therefore, this research was conducted to investigate the life cycle embodied energy (LCEE) consumed by various building assemblies in a residential building to provide relatable data for professionals. The findings indicate two levels of interest; firstly, life cycle embodied energy of the case study was found to be 13096.47 GJ with the initial embodied energy being 7390.5 GJ (56%) and the recurrent embodied energy was 5690.01 GJ (43%). Secondly, the study presents the embodied energy impacts of various building assemblies and revealed that while the wall assembly was highest, responsible for 25% of the LCEE, the floors contributed 18% and the roof, 6%. The study reveals the significance of embodied energy consciousness in envelope design, as well as the design and specification of building assemblies.

Original languageEnglish
JournalInternational Conference on Construction in the 21st Century
Publication statusPublished - 2022
Event12th International Conference on Construction in the 21st Century, CITC 2022 - Amman, Jordan
Duration: May 16 2022May 19 2022


  • Building Assemblies
  • Building materials
  • initial embodied energy
  • Input Output Hybrid Analysis
  • Life cycle embodied energy
  • recurrent embodied energy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Civil and Structural Engineering
  • Building and Construction
  • Management of Technology and Innovation


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