The Influence of Multiple Community Level Traumatic Event Types on Mental Health Outcomes

Ian Grey, Zeina Makki, Christelle Kahale, Rudy Abi Habib, Pia Tohme

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Lebanon witnessed three large-scale negative community level events in 2020; a severe economic crisis, the COVID-19 pandemic, and an explosion in the port of the capital city, Beirut, which resulted in the deaths of 218 individuals and several thousand injured. The current study examined the relationship between the number of community level events individuals identified as personally impactful and corresponding levels of anxiety, depression, and symptoms of PTSD. The study also examined the roles of specific protective factors including perceived social support, resilience, and religious coping. A total of 406 participants aged between 18 to 64 years completed validated self-report measures online in February 2021. Results indicated elevated levels of mental health difficulties within the sample with over half of the participants reporting moderate to severe anxiety and moderate to severe depression and meeting the cut-off for probable PTSD. Females had significantly higher scores on measures of depression, anxiety, and PTSD. Individuals reporting all three events as negatively impactful were 47% more likely to meet the cut-off for PTSD than individuals identifying a single event. Resilience appeared to be the strongest protective factor against elevated scores on all three mental health outcomes. Higher scores on negative religious coping were also associated with elevated PTSD scores. Low levels of resilience, higher negative religious coping, and being a female were identified as significant predictors of reaching the PTSD cut-off using binary logistic regression analysis.

Original languageEnglish
JournalPsychological reports
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 2023


  • post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
  • religious coping
  • resilience
  • Trauma

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Psychology


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