The Middle East and North Africa Diagnosis and Management Guidelines for Inborn Errors of Immunity

Safa Baris, Hassan Abolhassani, Michel J. Massaad, Maryam Al-Nesf, Zahra Chavoshzadeh, Sevgi Keles, Ismail Reisli, Azzeddine Tahiat, Hiba Mohammad Shendi, Dalia Abd Elaziz, Brahim Belaid, Fatima Al Dhaheri, Sule Haskologlu, Figen Dogu, Imen Ben-Mustapha, Ali Sobh, Nermeen Galal, Safa Meshaal, Rabab Elhawary, Aisha El-marsafyFayhan J. Alroqi, Bandar Al-Saud, Mona Al-Ahmad, Tariq Al Farsi, Nashat AL Sukaiti, Salem Al-Tamemi, Cybel Mehawej, Ghassan Dbaibo, Gehad ElGhazali, Sara Sebnem Kilic, Ferah Genel, Ayca Kiykim, Ugur Musabak, Hasibe Artac, Sukru Nail Guner, Rachida Boukari, Reda Djidjik, Nadia Kechout, Deniz Cagdas, Zeinab Awad El-Sayed, Elif Karakoc-Aydiner, Raed Alzyoud, Mohamed Ridha Barbouche, Mehdi Adeli, Rima Hanna Wakim, Shereen M. Reda, Aydan Ikinciogullari, Ahmet Ozen, Aziz Bousfiha, Hamoud Al-Mousa, Nima Rezaei, Waleed Al-Herz, Raif S. Geha

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

12 Citations (Scopus)


Human inborn errors of immunity (IEI) are a group of 485 distinct genetic disorders affecting children and adults. Signs and symptoms of IEI are heterogeneous, and accurate diagnosis can be challenging and depends on the available human expertise and laboratory resources. The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region has an increased prevalence of IEI because of the high rate of consanguinity with a predominance of autosomal recessive disorders. This area also exhibits more severe disease phenotypes compared with other regions, probably due to the delay in diagnosis. The MENA-IEI registry network has designed protocols and guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of IEI, taking into consideration the variable regional expertise and resources. These guidelines are primarily meant to improve the care of patients within the region, but can also be followed in other regions with similar patient populations.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)158-180.e11
JournalJournal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology: In Practice
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2023


  • Diagnosis
  • Inborn errors of immunity
  • MENA region
  • Primary immunodeficiency
  • Treatment

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy


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