The role of turmeric and black pepper oil nanoemulsion in attenuating cytokine storm triggered by duck hepatitis A virus type I (DHAV-I)-induced infection in ducklings

Hemat S. El-Sayed, Aalaa S. Saad, Wesam A. Tawfik, Amany Adel, Marwa A. Abdelmagid, Maha Abdullah Momenah, Dalia M. Azab, Sabry E. Omar, Ayman S. El-Habbaa, Safia M.A. Bahshwan, Amira M. Alghamdi, Mohamed T. El-Saadony, Khaled A. El-Tarabily, Fouad S. El‐Mayet

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The cytokine storm induced by duck hepatitis A virus type 1 (DHAV-1) infection significantly contributes to severe, rapid deaths and economic losses in the duck industry in Egypt. This study aimed to investigate the potential inhibitory effect of a nanoemulsion containing turmeric and black pepper oil on the immune response and pathogenesis of DHAV-1 in ducklings. A total of 105 ducklings from nonvaccinated breeders were divided into 5 experimental groups, each comprising 21 birds. The negative control group (G1) remained noninfected with DHAV-1 and nontreated with nanoemulsion, while the positive control group (G2) was infected with DHAV-1 but not treated with nanoemulsion. The other 2 groups (G3, the supplemented group which was noninfected with DHAV-1), and group 4 (the prophylactic group G4) which was infected with DHAV-1, both received nanoemulsion throughout the experiment. Group 5 (G5, therapeutic group), on the other hand, which was infected with DHAV-1 received nanoemulsion only from the onset of clinical signs. At 5 days old, the ducklings in positive control (G2), prophylactic (G4), and therapeutic group (G5) were infected with DHAV-1. All the ducklings in the infected groups exhibited depression, anorexia, and opisthotonos, and their livers displayed various degrees of ecchymotic hemorrhage, liver enlargement, and microscopic pathological lesions. Notably, the positive control group (G2) experienced the most severe and pronounced effects compared to the other infected groups treated with the nanoemulsion. Meanwhile, the viral RNA loads were lower in the liver tissues of the infected ducklings treated with the nanoemulsion (G4, and G5) compared to the positive control group G2. Additionally, the nanoemulsion effectively modulated proinflammatory cytokine expression, antioxidant enzymes, liver enzymes, and lipid profile of treated ducklings. In conclusion, the turmeric and black pepper oil nanoemulsion has the potential to be a therapeutic agent for regulating and modulating the immune response, decreasing DHAV-1-induced cytokine storms, and minimizing mortality and economic losses in the duck business. More research is needed to understand how turmeric and black pepper oil nanoemulsion alleviates DHVA-1-induced cytokine storms and lowers duckling mortality.

Original languageEnglish
Article number103404
JournalPoultry science
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2024


  • Black pepper
  • DHAV-1
  • curcumin
  • cytokine storm
  • ducklings
  • nano-emulsion

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Animal Science and Zoology


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